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Mobile phones and WiFi radiation health risks

There have been many skeptics since the very initial introduction of wireless service about what the constant exposure to radiation can do to human health and the nature surrounding it.

While the world is bracing for the launch of 5G services the question of the health risks looms large.

The result of the extensive study that was conducted by the National Institutes of Health, US was inconclusive. The 10 year study was conducted using 2G and 3G wireless radiation exposure on animals for 9 hours each day. While it did show the increased risk of mutation leading to the growth of tumors or tissue and DNA damage in a group of rodents, another group did not show any evident health issues related to the exposure.

The International Agency for Research on Cancer has cited exposure to radiation as a potent carcinogen for humans. It means that long term exposure to radiations could result in extensive damage.

But here is something to think about. The studies were conducted on animals that were expo…

Globalization: The Impact It Has on Taxation

Globalization is the process of increasing connectivity and uniting the worlds businesses. It has developed over the last couple of decades. As the internet emerges, globalization emerges as well, which makes it easier for people to travel, communicate, and conduct business internationally. However, as globalization has risen, so have pro-globalization and anti-globalization lobbies. The people for the pro side say that it brings out increased opportunities for everyone. The people for the other side argue that certain groups of who are deprived of resources. These groups are not capable of functioning in the increased pressure.

The fact that globalization links the world's major companies to make it more universal, drastically impacts the majority of the world's populations. This is because these companies find loopholes in the system by hiring accountants and lawyers to scheme their way around paying large amounts of tax. The average person is deprived of fair tax laws and the burden to make up for these large amounts is put on them. Globalization, however, is thought to reduce the ability of governments to collect taxes. Most economists support globalization due to the fact that it raises people's income through the world economy and a competitive business market. The U.S. government has already given up massive amounts of political and economic powers to global organizations. Many people see globalization as sending millions of jobs which destroys the standard of living in the United States. These companies giving jobs to people overseas who will work for less and less benefits, is having a devastating impact on manufacturing in the United States. As capital and labor become more international, the international tax competition increases. Globalization makes it harder for countries to tax at high rates because people and capital will flow out. With tax competition, individuals and businesses gain the freedom to take advantage of low tax rates abroad. On the other hand, globalization could result in more trading which creates more jobs because more resources will be available.

This trend of globalization is becoming more popular as technology and communication improve. This results in financial professionals recognizing two needs to better the global economy. The two needs consist of a universal set of accounting principles and a highly technical workforce to continuously improve them. Although globalization has brought about new opportunities, they create a very complex business environment. Globalization has significantly affected the design of fiscal policy.

It is believed that studies employing effective tax rates, result in a negative impact of globalization on capital tax rates while studies relying on tax capital revenues positively impact market integration on capital taxation. Also, scholars believe that employing corporate profits and capital gains as proxy of the capital ax base may be crucial. Corporate profits are the most mobile form of capital according to these scholars. Market integration measures that are based on actual flows of trade better reflect international economic integration. The globalization index by Quinn, can better capture international capital market integration. However, according to the globalization index developed by Dresher, it can capture the various political and social features of globalization.

One advantage of globalization is that businesses or individuals have the ability to do business in countries outside of its country. Certain countries have something called a tax haven which is considered an area where certain taxes are offered at a lower rate. Other things that are offered by other countries are double taxation agreements and tax holidays. Double taxation agreements promote globalizing businesses and avoid double taxation of the businesses. Tax holidays are the most popular tax incentives. They allow exemptions from paying taxes for a certain time period. These are all advantages of globalization in countries.

However, there are also negative impacts on taxation due to globalization. It may benefit individuals and businesses to do their operations in other countries, but it hurts the countries that these businesses reside in. Tax havens have a not so good effect on the residing countries of these businesses. They ultimately take tax revenues away from these countries. Although tax havens seem like a necessity, there is also a burden that tax havens cause to their home countries. Another disadvantage is that tax holidays will make businesses shift income into tax havens and away from reinvesting in the United States.

As you can see, globalization impacts taxation in many different ways. Like everything else in the world, globalization comes with advantages and disadvantages. Knowing what globalization is and how it affects the economy and taxation, helps people decide which side they want to be on. Whether they are for or against globalization is figured out by looking at the facts.


 By Charles Reed


Article Source: Globalization: The Impact It Has on Taxation

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